AZ Physicians: We need a stay-at-home order and mask mandate now

The COVID-19 outbreak in Arizona is rapidly worsening and, as physicians, we believe that federal and state leaders must take action to prevent the situation from deteriorating further.

Beginning immediately, Gov. Ducey should use his executive powers and implement these two actions:
  • Require all adults to wear masks in public

  • Issue a statewide stay-at-home order to maximize social distancing

We additionally urge our federal congressional delegation to pass common-sense legislation that will expand people’s access to healthcare, such as extending telemedicine coverage for Medicare through 2020, and quickly enacting legislation that will directly support Arizona families and businesses. We must recognize that people will face financial hardships as a result of a pandemic that has been allowed to accelerate unchecked, devastating lives as well as our broader economy. Such compassionate legislation should include, but not be limited to, expanded unemployment support, direct payments to businesses and extensive paid leave -- all measures that will support the most vulnerable people during a painful yet necessary stay-at-home order.

By acting now, we can still save lives and prevent greater, longer-lasting physical, emotional and economic hardships. COVID-19 is steamrolling through Arizona and dozens of other states. We can either do nothing, surrender and allow this pandemic to claim more lives as President Trump would have us do, or we can use the valuable knowledge we have acquired in the past four months and take the preventative measures we know can reduce infections. We do not have to accept sickness and death from COVID-19 as a foregone conclusion when we know wearing masks, social distancing and sheltering in place can protect people from this coronavirus.

The epidemiological research is clear: masks can reduce both person-to-person coronavirus transmission at the individual level as well as decrease the rate of community infections overall. Additionally, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends people stay at least 6 feet apart to minimize infections. States that implemented stay-at-home orders saved thousands of lives, research shows.

Arizona’s outbreak is straining health workers’ and local communities’ ability to care for people and keep them safe. Hospitals are running out of ICU beds and critical resources.

The situation is likely to get worse, very quickly. Arizona now has the highest percentage of positive COVID-19 cases in the nation. More than one in every four people who are tested is now infected with the coronavirus. Testing may be up by 12 percent compared with mid-June, yet positive cases are up 36 percent, hospitalizations are up 66 percent and daily deaths are up 79 percent, according to data.

As physicians and medical professionals, we took an oath to do no harm. We therefore cannot sit by and just “live with it, ” as President Trump concedes. Wearing masks and implementing a stay-at-home order will reduce harm from the worsening pandemic in Arizona. We urge Gov. Ducey and our state and federal leaders to protect public health, save lives and take immediate action now.

The co-signed physicians below support these immediate actions:

Dr. Charles Adler, MD, PhD, Neurology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Laura Adler, MD, Internal Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Nimit Agarwal, MD, Geriatric Medicine (Peoria, AZ)

Dr. Rekha Agarwal, MD, Endocrinology (Peoria, AZ)

Dr. Neera Agrwal, MD, Internal Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Michelle Aguilar, MD, Pediatrics (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Usma Ahmad, MD, Primary Care & Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Steve Alder, MD, Pathology (Tempe, AZ)

Dr. Sommer Aldulaimi, MD, Family and Community Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Lea Alhilali, MD, Radiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Bisi Alli, DO/MS, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Sapna Amin, MD, Pathology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Baynazier Ansari, MD, Pediatrician (Gilbert, AZ)

Dr. Asma Anwar, MD, Hematology Oncology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Liza Anwar, DO, Palliative Hospice (Mesa, AZ)

Cyndi Ayoub, WHNP-BC, Women's Health (Gilbert, AZ)

Dr. Natalya Azadeh, MD/MPH, Pulmonary Critical Care (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Katayoun Baniriah, DO, Family Practice (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Paul Baranko, MD, Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Judith Barnes Clark, MD, Pediatrics (Tempe, AZ)

Dr. Mashal Batheja, MD, GI (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Georgia Baumann, MD, Emergency medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Jacqueline Belen, DO, Gynecology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Robert Beren, MD, Family Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Scott Bernstein, MD, Internal Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Megan Blackburn, MD, Family Medicine (Goodyear, AZ)

Dr. Mindy Blaski, MD, Family Medicine & Geriatric Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Rachael Blumenthal, DO, Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Zeynep Bostanci, MD FACS, Breast Surgical Oncology (Goodyear, AZ)

Dr. Christi Bourne, MD, Surgery (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Ciara Bozarth, DO, Family Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Warren Breisblatt, MD, Cardiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Michael Brennan, MD/DLFAPA, Medical Director, Psychiatry (Apache Junction, AZ)

Dr. Stephen Brockway, MD, Psychiatry (Cave Creek, AZ)

Dr. Tina Byun, MD, Internal Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Mark Callesen MD, Chief Medical Officer, Psychiatry (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Andrew Carroll, MD, Family Medicine (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Jacqueline Carter, MD, Internal Medicine/Pediatrics (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Uriel Castañeda, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Lourdes Castañón, MD, Medical Director, Trauma/Burn/Critical Care (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Melissa Chambers, DO, Pediatric Endocrinology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Karen Chandler, MD, Hospice (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Reeti Chawla, MD, Pediatric Endocrinology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kimberly Chea, MD, Emergency Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Sheetal Chhaya, DO/F.A.C.R., Rheumatology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Brooke Christiaens, MD, Pediatrics (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Danielle Chu, MD, Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Joel Cooper, DO, Family Medicine (Peoria, AZ)

Dr. Anna Cordova, MD, Anesthesiology (Tempe, AZ)

Dr. Heather Costello, MD, Emergency (Fort Mcdowell, AZ)

Dr. Diana DaBell, MD, Emergency Medicine (Peoria, AZ)

Dr. Kirsten d'Hemecourt, MD/MPH, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Sharam Danesh, MD, Ophthalmology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Andrea Darby-Stewart, MD, Family Medicine/Hospitalist/Residency Education (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Julie Davis-Best, MD, OB/GYN (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Nadia Day, MD, Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Lorena De Alejandro, FNP, Urgent Care (Peoria, AZ)

Dr. Rachel Deatherage, MD, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Lawrence DeLuca, MD, Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine (Sahuarita, AZ)

Dr. Bart Demaerschalk MD, Professor of Neurology, (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Radhika Dhamija, MD, Medical Genetics and Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Sara Dhanani, MD, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. David Dodick, MD, Professor, Neurology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Edwin Dolin, MD, Radiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Courtney Domingo, WHNP, OB-GYN / MFM (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kathryn Donesa-Zuzak, MD, Family Medicine (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Susan Dorenbusch, MD, OB/GYN (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Carla Dormer, MD, Anesthesiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Patricia Drace, MD, Orthopedic Surgery (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Liz Enlow, MD/MS, Neonatology (Tucson, AZ)

Meredith Esner, PA-C, Cardiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Saeed Fakhrab, MD, Radiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Julia Files, MD, Internal medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Stephen Finberg, DO, Pulmonary (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Albert Fiorello, MD, Emergency Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Lauren Fisher, DO, Anesthesiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Amber Flaherty, MD, Oncology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Brigitte Flanagan, DO, Anesthesiologist/Pain Management (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Alissa Floman, MD/FACOG, OB/GYN (Queen Creek, AZ)

Denise Gallagher, FNP-C, Women’s Health (Tempe, AZ)

Dr. Mary García Kumirov, MD, Family Medicine (Sahuarita, AZ)

Dr. Ethiopia Gebeyehu, MD, Internal Medicine (Glendale, AZ)

Dr. John Gedell, Physician Assistant, Immunology (Gilbert, AZ)

Dr. Kara Geren, MD/MPH, Emergency Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Sonia Godbole, MD, Psychiatry (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Casey Golab, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Emma Goodstein, MD, Family Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Sheetal Gosalia, DO, Family Practice (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Clifford Gross, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Gail Guerrero Tucker, MD, MPH, Family Medicine (Thatcher, AZ)

Dr. Amy Guzek, MD, Pediatrics (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Susan Hagstrom, MD, Internal Medicine (Cave Creek, AZ)

Dr. Rashmi Halker Singh, MD, Neurology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Allyson Hamacher, Physician Assistant, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Tiffany Hardaway, MD, Anesthesiology (Cave Creek, AZ)

Dr. Mary Harrel, MD, Family Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Holly Harris, MD, Emergency Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Lucinda Harris, MD, Gastroenterology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Jenni Harris, DO, Radiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Julie Hastings, MD, PM&R (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Eric Hastriter, MD, Child Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Lexine Hebets, MD, OB/GYN (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Jennifer Hill, MD, Allergy and Immunology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. David Hoovestol, MD, Family Medicine (Yuma, AZ)

Dr. Susan Hughes, MD/FAAFP, Family Practice (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Judith Hutchinson, MD, Anesthesiology (Chandler, AZ)

Kimberly Isaac, Family Nurse Practitioner, Family Practice (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Marissa Jacobs, DO, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Tania Jafary, MD, Psychiatry (Gilbert, AZ)

Dr. Uzma Jafri, MD, Family Medicine/Geriatrics (Avondale, AZ)

Dr. Neal Jain, MD, Allergy/immunology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Amy Johnson, MD, Psychiatry (Weaverville, NC)

Dr. Andree Jones, DO, Primary Care Sports Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Aimee Kaempf, MD, Psychiatry (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Sheetal Kale, MD, OB/GYN (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Charles Katzenberg, MD, Cardiology (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Dashant Kavathia, MD, Pulmonary and Critical Care (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. David Kay, MD, Radiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Elham Kellershabrokh, DO, Emergency Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Leslee Kelly, MD, Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Sara Kertz, DO, Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Iram Khan, MD, Internal Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Shakeel Khan, MD, Cardiologist (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Juliana Kling, MD/MPH, Internal Medicine (Cave Creek, AZ)

Dr. Michael Kornreich, MD, Radiology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Atsuko Koyama, MD/MPH, Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Christina Kwasnica, MD, Physical Med Rehab (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Julie Kwatra, MD, OB/GYN (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Tiffany Lahr, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Matt Lam, MD, Cardiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Yvette Lam, MD, Gastroenterology (Sun City, AZ)

Dr. Dora Lam-Himlin, MD, Pathology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Daniel Latt, MD, Associate Professor, Orthopaedic surgey (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Lynn Lawrence, MD, PEM (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Leigh Lewis, ND, Women's Health (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kristin Lindstrom, MD, Genetics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Farah Lokey, MD, Pediatrics (Queen Creek, AZ)

Dr. Christine Lovato, MD, General/Bariatric Surgery (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Cheryl MacKechnie, MD, Otolaryngology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Cheryl Macy, MD, Emergency Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Daniel Maki, MD, Radiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Tara Mangum, DO, Pediatric NCC (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Gladys Martin, MD, Hospitalist (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Gregory Mayer, MD, Professor of Practice, Hospice & Palliative Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Alice McCormick, DO, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Melanie Meguro, MD, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Rajal Mehta, MD, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Joel Metelits, MD, IM (Phoenix, AZ)

Erin Miller, Physician Assistant, Emergency Department (Gilbert, AZ)

Dr. Judith Miller, MD, Anesthesiology & Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Rebecca Miller, MD, Family Medicine (Flagstaff, AZ)

Dr. Monica Mircescu, MD, Infectious Diseases (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kiran Mishra, MD, Pediatrics (Litchfield Park, AZ)

Dr. Tabitha Moe, MD, Congenital Cardiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Seema Mohan, MD, Internal Medicine (Carefree, AZ)

Dr. Gina Montion, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Rebecca Moran, MD, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Aris Mosley , MD, Psychiatry (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Theresa Murdock, MD, Peds Emergency Medicine (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Betsy Myers, DO, Psychiatry (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Shelly Myers, DO, Hospice (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Anand Narayanappa, MD, Anesthesiology (Cave Creek, AZ)

Dr. Anna Nelson-Moseke, MD, OB/GYN (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Manisha Nerkar, MD, Internal Medicine (Glendale, AZ)

Kaylin Neubauer, PA-C, Urgent Care (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Suzanne Nielsen, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Stephanie Niemi-Olson, FNP, Neurology (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Cumara O'Carroll, MD/MPH, Neurology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Gabrielle Ochoa, MD, Internal Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Charles Oh, MD, Cardiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Jennifer O’Hea, MD, Critical Care (Tempe, AZ)

Dr. Brittany Pace, MD, Psychiatry (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Susan Pansing, MD, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Soyoung Park, MD, Hematology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Shabana Pasha, MD, Gastroenterology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Ben Pate, MD, Anesthesia (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Niraja Patel, DO, Psychiatry (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Ruchir Patel, MD, Sleep Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Allison Peckumn, DO, Endocrinology (Goodyear, AZ)

Dr. Norma Perales, MD, Family Medicine (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Jessie Pettit, MD, Family Medicine (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. David Podkameni, MD, General and Bariatric Surgery (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Matthew Rank, MD, Allergy-Immunology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Farida Rassiwala, MD, Psychiatry (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Reena Rastogi, MD, Child Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Anita Ray, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Melissa Redleaf, MD, Pediatrics (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Elizabeth Reynoso, MD, OB/GYN (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Thomas Rick, MD, Anesthesiology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Matthew Ritz, MD, Anesthesiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Jennifer Robblee, MD, Assistant Professor, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Sandra Romero, MD, Pediatrics (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Ellen Rosenberg, MD, Neonatology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Anjali Roy, MD, Radiology (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Noreen Ruane, DO, Pediatrics and Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Jasgit Sachdev, MD, Medical Oncology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Mankanwal Sachdev, MD, Gastroenterology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Namita Sachdeva, MD, Internal Medicine (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Farshid Sadeghi, MD, Urology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Ritu Sadhu, MD, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kenneth Sakata, MD, Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. David Saperstein, MD, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Shahrzad Saririan, MD, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Heidi Schmidt, Physician Assistant, Allergy and Immunology (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Mariah Scott, DO, Pediatrics (Queen Creek, AZ)

Dr. Houshang Semino, MD, Psychiatry (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Srilakshmi Settipalli, MD, Family Medicine (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Sabitha Setty, MD, Pulmonary/Critical Care (Sedona, AZ)

Dr. Monaliza Setudehnia, MD, Internal Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Christine Severance, DO, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Eve Shapiro, MD, Pediatrics (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Sarah Sharer, MD, OB/GYN (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Nandini Sharma, MD, Nephrology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Mansoor Sheikh, MD, Emergency Medicine (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Tatyana Shekhel, DO, Infectious Disease (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Brenda Shinar, MD, Hospital Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Alicia Silvestrini, MD, Psychiatry (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Elizabeth Simoneau, MD, OB/GYN (Prescott Valley, AZ)

Dr. Harmeet Singh, MD, Endocrine (Peoria, AZ)

Dr. Sarahjeet Singh, MD, Family Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Jonathan Smith, M.D., Neurology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Shauna Smith, DNP, WHNP-BC, Women's Health/ MFM (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Vanessa Smith, MD, Pathology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Quinn Snyder, MD, Emergency Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Margaret Soliman, MD, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Molly Solorzano, MD, Anesthesiology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Anais Sonder, MD, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Suzanne Sorof, MD, Cardiology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Indu Srinivasan, MD, Gastroenterology (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Paul Stander, MD, Internal Med/ Geriatrics (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Amaal Starling, MD, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Karen Swain, PMHNP-BC, Psychiatry (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Areena Swarup, MD, Rheumatology (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Baharak Tabarsi, MD, Family Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Suzanne Tariot Sheard, DO, Psychiatry (Tempe, AZ)

Abigail Taylor, Physician Assistant, Neurology (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Arti Thiagarajan, MD, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kelly Thompson, MD, Pediatrics (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Kimberly Torrez, MD, Family Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Stephanie Tufano, MD, OB/GYN (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Amruta Vadnerkar, MD, Geriatrics (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Dr. Rashmi Vaidya, MD, Breast Surgery (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Juliana VanderPluym, MD, Neurology (Scottsdale, AZ)

Dr. Priya Vannarath, MD, Pediatrics (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Michael G Wade, MD, Family Medicine (Mesa, AZ)

Dr. Saudamini Wadwekar, MD, Family medicine (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Molly Walsh, DO, Surgery (Paradise Valley, AZ)

Sarah Ward, PT, DPT, Acute Physical Therapy (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Vasanta Weiss, MD, Nephrology (Tucson, AZ)

Dr. Briana Wellington, MD, OB/GYN (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Jordan Wells, MD, Emergency Medicine (Tempe, AZ)

Dr. Elizabeth Wilson, DO, Emergency Medicine (Litchfield Park, AZ)

Dr. Kelly Wu, MD, Hospice and Palliative Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Claudia Yeung, MD, Pediatric Emergency Care (Phoenix, AZ)

Nichole Yniguez, CPNP, Pediatrics (Chandler, AZ)

Dr. Lara Yoblonski, MD/MPH, Pediatrics (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Kevin Yu, MD, Internal Medicine (Phoenix, AZ)

Dr. Rahel Zubairi, MD, Pediatric Cardiology (Scottsdale, AZ)